In June 2017, the United Nations estimated that 141 million people in 37 countries needed humanitarian assistance because of natural disaster or war. The ongoing crisis in Syria, which has left more than half the country’s original population in need, is especially dire. Between fiscal years 2012 and 2016, USAID provided more than $3.7 billion in emergency humanitarian assistance to Syrians, including those living as refugees in neighboring countries. However, ensuring that aid reaches beneficiaries in nonpermissive environments such as Syria is challenging. Since 2015, the Office of Inspector General has identified and taken action to unravel complex fraud schemes targeting Syria cross-border aid programs. As of July 2018, our investigations have led to more than $20 million in savings, $180 million in costs avoided, 46 debarments or suspensions of companies and individuals implementing U.S. Government assistance programs, and important procedural changes in USAID operations to help promote financial and procurement integrity. As humanitarian crises persist worldwide, protecting U.S. funds will be essential to delivering emergency aid to millions of people in need.